Beyond Militarism, Arms Races and Arms Control Mary Kaldor, Professor and Director of the Programme on Global Civil Society; London School of Economics . Herbert Scoville, Jr. 8. Schelling, Thomas C., and Morton H. Halperin. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Detente and Confrontation: American-Soviet Relations from Nixon to Reagan. The Arms Control Association depends on the generous contributions of individuals who share our goal of promoting public understanding of and support for effective arms control policies. Read reviews from world’s largest community for readers. Before then, the Army's four "Homing Overlay Experiment (HOE)" demonstrations in 1983 and 1984 forecast our ground-based interceptors in Alaska and California — which have inherent ASAT capability. Intriligator, Michael D., and Dagobert L. Brito. Contemporary nuclear debates : missile defense, arms control, and arms races in the twenty-first century. Thus, although the NPT is a nearly universal and general agreement, it is politically oriented toward managing a dangerous and difficult imbalance between the nuclear haves and have-nots. Third, it involves at least tacit if not explicit bargaining because the incentives to cooperate that infuse the relationship are always mixed with some degree of conflict and incentives to compete. Others have suggested that arms races that generate large swings back and forth in relative strength (thus creating tempting opportunities for aggression by the temporary leader) are the most dangerous. This paperback is written for people actively concerned about the dangers of war. 1960. Search: Search all titles. Washington Quarterly 10 (3): 59-72. Demining efforts catalyzed by the convention have resulted in the removal of hundreds of thousands of mines, saving a large number of lives worldwide. This détente took several forms, including increased discussion on arms control. Philip E. Tetlock, Jo L. Husbands, Robert Jervis, Paul C. Stern, and Charles Tilly, 73-109. There is one remaining nuclear treaty forestalling a nuclear arms race between the United States and Russia. 1976. Simply defined as a competition between two or more states to have superior armed forces; a competition concerning production of weapons, the growth of a military, and the aim of superior military technology. The Arms Race and Arms Control 1983. John A. Vasquez, 165-195. Behind these sweeping generalities are a variety of undertakings that apply specifically to two different “classes” of signatories—the Nuclear Weapons States (NWS) and the Non-Nuclear Weapons States (NNWS). Buzan, Barry, and Eric Herring. 1961. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Epub 2010 Mar 18. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Second, even if an arms race between status-quo-oriented states does sometimes culminate in war, their decisions to fight are based on concrete stakes and complex political judgments that simply cannot be reduced to reciprocal fears caused by the arms race itself. Military Buildups: Arming and War. Learn more. Jervis, Robert. New York: Praeger. Weber, Steven. As of 2007, 155 member states had joined, while 37 had not, including 3 permanent members of the United Nations Security Council: the United States, Russia, and China. Thus, although it is a form of international cooperation, arms control does not transcend power politics. Arms Race OverviewNaval Arms RaceNuclear Arms Race Nye, Joseph S., Jr. 1989-1990. Brodie, Bernard. The Baruch plan would have created a supranational body, the Atomic Development Agency, with a global monopoly over virtually the whole field of atomic energy and the right of intrusive inspection. Its general aims are to reduce and eventually eliminate the role of nuclear weapons in international politics. Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/applied-and-social-sciences-magazines/arms-control-and-arms-race. 1998. An arms race occurs only when parties for whom war is a possibility engage in strategically interdependent increases in the quantity and/or quality of weapons: Their respective acquisitions and buildups are meant to match or overcome the strengths of the other side. In this view, arming itself may become the stuff over which states fight. From the 1960s to the 1980s, the Soviet Union and the United States experimented with weapons designed to destroy earth-orbiting satellites, which have tremendous civilian and military utility. The 1922 Washington Naval Treaty, for example, was rivalry specific. London: Allen and Unwin. 1983. General and rivalry-specific characteristics of arms control can overlap—for example, when a rivalry-specific formula is nested within a more general arms control agreement. The most important and contentious arms control agreement of the early twenty-first century—the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT)—is a good illustration of this. Huntington, Samuel P. 1958. Pacific Grove, CA: Boxwood Press and Quadrangle Books. The goal of “a new era of arms control,” he says, is a new agreement that limits both Russia’s strategic nuclear weapons and its tactical nuclear weapons, and that also involves China. ∎ (in technical use) each of these upper limbs from…, arms serve as our primary connection to people and objects, through our reach and our ability to grasp things: through defensive postures, arms can a…, Kenneth J. Hagan and Enhancing predictability regarding size and structure of forces, thus reducing fear of aggressive intent; 3. International Organization 36 (2): 357-378. It also describes what progress (if any) has been made towards any kind of arms control. Arms Trade—a major cause of suffering Last updated Sunday, June 30, 2013. Despite this, arms control is exceedingly rare historically, so that arming is ubiquitous and its costs to humanity are large. Arms races between developing countries are not common and where they occur are usually the direct product of specific political tensions: arms restraint is. There was thus a strong rivalry-specific core within the broader general agreement. Do the dynamics of qualitative races (in which competitors seek innovative capabilities that will render their rival’s obsolete) differ from quantitative races (in which competitors seek a numerical advantage in relatively comparable weapons)? ment (R&D). Your membership comes with a 12-month subscription to Arms Control Today. "With so many people working at home due to COVID-19, there are more connections to virtual private networks … A nucleator arms race: cellular control of actin assembly Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. Iklé, Fred Charles. Disarmament and arms control intersect with one another. Sample, Susan G. 2000. ISBN 0-85066-232-X. : The Secret U.S. Plan for Nuclear War. Proponents of arms control do not deny that these problems exist, but they point out that arms control is not always hostage to the vagaries of the political environment—it can shape that environment too. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. By M. Shane Smith July 2003 Arms control is often defined very broadly to refer to all forms of cooperation between potential adversaries geared toward reducing the likeliness of war, the economic costs of preparing for war and limiting the scope of violence should war occur. Two objections to the conflict-spiral conception of arms racing are often raised. 2010 Apr;11(4):237-51. doi: 10.1038/nrm2867. Deadly Gambits: The Reagan Administration and the Stalemate in Nuclear Arms Control. Rathjens, George W. 1969. Arms Races, the Conflict Spiral, and the Onset of War. SIPRI is an independent international institute dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament. Publisher: Taylor & Francis. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Reducing the size of national defense industry establishments and thus permit the growth of more vital, nonmilitary industries; 4. Similarly, the parties to the 1990 Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) treaty were all members of either the NATO or Warsaw Pact alliances. Second, arms control involves strategic interdependence—the parties engaged in it are sensitive to each other’s postures and actions, and their decisions to agree and comply with arms control depend on their beliefs about each other’s willingness to do likewise. In circumstances of rivalry, in which trust and confidence-building is most needed, solutions to the verification problem (of measuring compliance with arms control agreements) can prove elusive. The arms control effort is hampered in part by deteriorating trust between Washington and Moscow. Some governments spend more on military expenditure than on social development, communications … This paperback provides those actively concerned with the dangers of war with well-researched and up-to-date information on military developments of every kind. Rev. And if the latter is necessary, will the supportive international political context on which arms control depends take shape and be maintained? Jervis, Robert. Or must a new matrix of rivalry-specific, general, and supplier-cartel agreements be contrived to manage risky relationships between states and nonstate actors? Your membership comes with a 12-month subscription to Arms Control Today. By Eurasia Diary. For example, during the most dramatic upswing of the cold war nuclear arms race, as the Soviet arsenal grew and American planners became ever more ambitious in their target selection, the U.S. nuclear warhead stockpile climbed from approximately 1,000 in 1955, to 18,000 in 1960, to 32,000 by 1967. . There is one more note of caution: Effective arms control agreements that do produce mutual verifiable cuts will expose new gaps and asymmetries in the balance of forces among potential rivals, and, as a result, may encourage them to channel new investments into other—and potentially more destabilizing—weapons systems. The conflict-spiral premise is what makes many figurative uses of the term arms race inapt. The Future of Arms Control. However, although the United States has not signed the treaty, it has funded and supported demining efforts worldwide. The Causes and Consequences of Arms Races. Gray, Colin S. 1992. Your Account. Averting a Brobdingnagian Skeet Shoot: Arms Control Measures for Anti-Satellite Weapons. Glaser, Charles L. 2000. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press. Read “Nuclear Weapons” to learn more. Arms control refers to the voluntary limitation or reduction of weapons and their means of delivery, between and among countries. House of Cards: Why Arms Control Must Fail. Nevertheless, there is an impressive amount of research on the connection between arms races and war, most of which has tended to focus on a few key questions: Given that some arms races culminate in wars, whereas others do not, are certain types more conducive to war than others? The goal was to stabilize the existing balance of naval forces at lower levels, and to forestall an arms race among the three parties. Arms Races and the Causes of War, 1850-1945. Foreign Affairs 39 (2): 208-220. 2005. Thus, even though many important countries have not signed the convention, it has had a tangible humanitarian impact. Richardson, Lewis. Thus, the prospect of a space arms race was resurrected, and the question of whether such a race could become so intense as to raise the probability of war was reopened—along with the question of whether arms control could serve to prevent war. The NNWS cannot “legitimately” possess nuclear weapons, but in return for foreswearing them, they are entitled to develop nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, and to international support for those efforts channeled through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). When Are Arms Races Dangerous? The New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (), signed in 2010, is scheduled to expire on February 5, 2021.The US and Russian presidents can agree to extend the treaty by a period of up to five years without further approval from the US Senate, according to Article XIV of the treaty. If … Epub 2010 Mar 18. Bull, Hedley. SEE ALSO Cold War; Deterrence, Mutual; Gorbachev, Mikhail; Huntington, Samuel P.; League of Nations; Militarism; National Security; Politics; Reagan, Ronald; Terrorism; Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; United Nations; Weaponry, Nuclear; Weapons Industry; Weapons of Mass Destruction. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. A Twist of Truth: A Reexamination of the Effects of Arms Races on the Occurrence of War. French President Emmanuel Macron warned Friday that European nations "cannot remain spectators" in the face of a potential nuclear arms race and urged them to push an "international arms control agenda. Authors Kenneth G Campellone 1 , Matthew D Welch. The Great Transition: American-Soviet Relations and the End of the Cold War. 1987. Washington accuses Moscow of cheating and of aspiring to a nuclear buildup. Arms control is meant to break the security dilemma. Now, consider a few related arms control pseudo "miniseries." By contrast, general arms control measures aspire to universality: With a broad ambit and generic guidelines, they are meant to exert desired effects over the multitude of strategic relationships in international politics. The worst fears about arms races, however, are not that they are wasteful but that they can cause wars by feeding conflict-spirals that do not just reflect enmities, but create and reinforce them. 1998. The element of strategic interdependence is central to the identification of the arms race as a phenomenon of international politics, which requires states to rely ultimately on their own military forces for security, because the military forces of other states may threaten them and there is no world government to protect them. 1982 . Freeman edition, in English I suggest that analysis of practices in this era has relevance for debates about contemporary arms governance. If you need help writing your assignment, please use our research paper writing service and buy a paper on any topic at affordable price. First, it is a political relationship between actors: Unilateral arms control is an oxymoron. Established in 1966, SIPRI provides data, analysis and recommendations, based on open sources. ISSN: 0265-1807: OCLC Number: 9966431: Description: 3 volumes : illustrations ; 19-23 cm: Other Titles: Arms race and arms control: Responsibility: ed. The arms control effort is hampered in part by deteriorating trust between Washington and Moscow. Jon Lake takes a look at the situation. +46 8 655 97 00, The independent resource on global security, Nuclear disarmament, arms control and non-proliferation, Emerging military and security technologies, An international satellite monitoring agency. [Hedley Bull] France - in post Brexit Europe - is continent's only nuclear power. ARMS RACE Arms control is a form of international security coopera-tion, or Òsecurity regime,Ó aimed at limiting, through tacit or explicit agreement, the qualities, quantity, or use of weapons. Arms control efforts are undertaken by a broader group of actors; some efforts are multinational and played out in the United Nations, others are regional, and many nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have joined the efforts to push for arms control. Disarmament and arms control measures can be imposed on states, be taken unilaterally by a state or be agreed between two states or multiple states. New York: Oxford University Press. Grasping the Technological Peace: The Offense-Defense Balance and International Security. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Découvrez et achetez The Arms Race and Arms Control 1984. An under-the-radar but consequential decision facing the new administration will be whether and how to move forward with Trump-era plans to expand the U.S. national missile defense … For more than half a century, nuclear arms control has been a key element of the bilateral relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union, now Russia. Allowing New START to expire could risk a new nuclear arms race by signaling that the two states with the largest nuclear arsenals are no longer committed to arms control. Arms control is more than just a means by which states press fixed national interests; it involves a political process that may permit them to learn more about each other, to deflate exaggerated images of “the enemy,” and to conceive of interests in more compatible ways. After Detection—What? Goldman, Emily O. Learning and the Evolution of Cooperation in U.S. and Soviet Nuclear Nonproliferation Activities. Arms control is restraint internationally exercised upon armaments policy, whether in respect of the level of armaments, their character, deployment or use. In the rivalry-specific form, adversaries seek to manage their security competition through agreements that are tailored to the shape of their strategic relationship, in order to make a more stable or at least less costly military balance. At the background, the indications of increasing budgets appear not only in the U.S. and Russia, but also in China and India. This is why the concept of “arms control” also includes instruments to promote transparency and build confidence, for instance by means of reciprocal monitoring and inspection and t… International Security 5 (3): 41-60. It is different from disarmamentsince the maintenance of stability might allow for m… Even if arms racing increased the likelihood of war only by small margins, as the number of nuclear “racers” multiplied so too would the prospects for nuclear holocaust. It has, for example, been used to describe the spike in steroid use among the “slugger-elite” of professional baseball, and also the steady pace of miniaturization and computing-capacity innovation among microchip developers. York, Herbert. ACA is a nonpartisan, nonprofit membership organization, and your financial support makes a difference. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion The term is often used quite loosely to refer to any military buildup or spending increases by a group of countries. Similarly, in 1972, at the peak of cold war détente, the United States and the Soviet Union pledged in the first Strategic Arms Limitation Talks agreement (SALT I) to limit the number of ballistic nuclear missile launchers to then-current levels, and to abide by major limitations on the deployment of strategic missile defense systems. Missile Defense and the Arms Race. In its general conception, arms control is any type of restraint on the use of arms, any form of military cooperation between adversaries. Arms Control, Disarmament, and National Security. Washington accuses Moscow of cheating and of aspiring to a nuclear buildup. Collective Security, Arms Control, and the New Europe. US hospitals are engaged in an infection control arms race. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. Arms control experts suggested that Trump’s increased military spending could be part of his strategy to force potential rivals, including China and Russia, to come to the negotiating table to discuss arms control, after proving to them that there was no chance of winning an arms race … Assuming a workable verification mechanism can be agreed on, there remains, as Fred Iklé famously observed, the enforcement problem—how to punish the cheaters that are caught. It aims at mutual security between partners and overall stability (be it in a crisis situation, a grand strategy, or stability to put an end to an arms race). Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. arms race definition: 1. the situation in which two or more countries try to have more and stronger weapons than each…. Scholars and practitioners such as John Steinbruner, Jonathan Dean or Stuart Croft worked extensively on the theoretical backing of arms control. 1961. Frank Barnaby and Randall Forsberg, 5. The Arms Dynamic in World Politics. By the same token, critics contend, arms control is most readily achieved and likely to work when it is least needed—that is, when international politics are placid or when foes concur that the weapons in question lack utility. Britain is introducing a UN resolution on security in space following rising alarm that it is becoming a new arena for a dangerous escalation of the arms race. 1985. Although a general aim of the treaty was to reduce conventional forces in Europe, its organizing principle was military balance between the two blocs. Encyclopedia.com. New York: Twentieth Century Fund. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. The Emergence of Cooperation: National Epistemic Communities and the International Evolution of the Idea of Nuclear Arms Control. If it is folly to pursue arms control with irredeemably aggressive states, it is just as foolish not to pursue it when the situation is less clear-cut, for arms control itself may help not only to bring clarity but also to prevent potentially aggressive states from becoming aggressors. Bhupendra Jasani. Insistence on highly intrusive forms of verification, moreover, can mask a basic unwillingness to reach agreement and negotiations can become a charade: Here the goal is not to find common ground but merely to avoid taking the blame for the failure to do so. Arms Races and War. It was very hard to understand why a much smaller (and cheaper) arsenal of warheads would not have been sufficient to achieve the main strategic purposes: deterring a Soviet nuclear strike on the United States, or a conventional assault on Western Europe. 2004. 1979. Examples include universal masking of … Arms Control after the Cold War. Although the decade began with vast improvements in bilateral relations, by the end of the decade events had brought the two superpowers … Arms race and arms control (OCoLC)557461881: Document Type: Journal / Magazine / Newspaper: All Authors / Contributors: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. As the cold war recedes, and with it the chilling imagery of a nuclear-arms-race-spiral, the concept of an arms race remains useful. On the Objectives of Arms Control. The New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) expires in 2021 and experts are already warning of potential arms race. International Security 25 (1): 71-104. In Behavior, Society, and Nuclear War, vol. In Strategy and Diplomacy, 1870-1945: Eight Studies, 165-177. Skip to main content. Noté /5. 1989. Elizabeth Skinner The Arms Control Association depends on the generous contributions of individuals who share our goal of promoting public understanding of and support for effective arms control policies. Region: Russia and FSU. The Arms Race and Arms Control 1984 1st Edition by Stockholm International Peace Research Institute and Publisher Routledge. New York: Vintage. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute Sunken Treaties: Naval Arms Control between the Wars. This perceived and perhaps real shift in nuclear risk raises important questions about the future agenda of arms control concerning nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction: Can the existing nonproliferation regimes—with some clever rewiring—furnish satisfactory solutions? 6. https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/applied-and-social-sciences-magazines/arms-control-and-arms-race, "Arms Control and Arms Race International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Get this from a library! 7 articles on “Arms Control” and 2 related issues: Nuclear Weapons Last updated Tuesday, December 06, 2011. The first and most intuitive is that arms races do not cause hostility but are its consequence. The Origins of Overkill: Nuclear Weapons and American Strategy, 1945-1960. International Security 7 (4): 3-71. T&F logo. Phishing and detection arms races ramp up System integrator Grantek details how cybersecurity providers are ramping up their efforts. 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